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1. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora, Jerzy Kasprzyk. Indication variability of the particulate matter sensors dependent on their location. Sensors, 24, (5) str. 1683, 2024 r.

,,Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the air significantly impacts human health. Those of anthropogenic origin are particularly hazardous. Poland is one of the countries where the air quality during the heating season is the worst in Europe. Air quality in small towns and villages far from state monitoring stations is often much worse than in larger cities where they are located. Their residents inhale the air containing smoke produced mainly by coal-fired stoves. In the frame of this project, an air quality monitoring network was built. It comprises low-cost PMS7003 PM sensors and ESP8266 microcontrollers with integrated Wi-Fi communication modules. This article presents research results on the influence of the PM sensor location on their indications. It has been shown that the indications from sensors several dozen meters away from each other can differ by up to tenfold, depending on weather conditions and the source of smoke. Therefore, measurements performed by a network of sensors, even of worse quality, are much more representative than those conducted in one spot. The results also indicated the method of detecting a sudden increase in air pollutants. In the case of smokiness, the difference between the mean and median indications of the PM sensor increases even up to 400 µg/m3 over a 5 min time window. Information from this comparison suggests a sudden deterioration in air quality and can allow for quick intervention to protect people’s health. This method can be used in protection systems where fast detection of anomalies is necessary."

2. Karol Marciniak, Faisal Saleem, Józef Wiora. Influence of Models Approximating the Fractional-Order Differential Equations on the Calculation Accuracy. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 131, str. 107807, 2024 r.

,,In recent years, the usage of fractional-order (FO) differential equations to describe objects and physical phenomena has gained immense popularity. Due to the high computational complexity in the exact calculation of these equations, approximation models make the calculations executable. Regardless of their complexity, these models always introduce some inaccuracy which depends on the model type and its order. This article shows how the selected model affects the obtained solution. This study revisits seven fractional approximation models, known as the Continued Fraction Expansion method, the Matsuda method, the Carlson method, a modified version of the Stability Boundary Locus fitting method, and Basic, Refined, and Xue Oustaloup filters. First, this work calculates the steady-state values for each of the models symbolically. In the next step, it calculates the unit step responses. Then, it shows how the model selection affects Nyquist plots and compares the results with the plot determined directly. In the last stage, it estimates the trajectories for an example of an FO control system by each model. We conclude that when employing approximation models for fractional integro-differentiation, choosing the appropriate type of model, its parameters, and order is very important. Selecting the wrong model type or wrong order may lead to incorrect conclusions when describing a real phenomenon or object."

3. Wojciech Batko, Rafał Burdzik, Jan Warczek, Leszek Radziszewski, Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Artur Nowoświat, Józef Wiora, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki. Analiza zmian czułości skali decybelowej dla rożnych zakresów wartości granicznych pomiarów środowiskowych. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 85, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

4. Wojciech Batko, Leszek Radziszewski, Rafał Burdzik, Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Jan Warczek, Artur Nowoświat, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki, Józef Wiora, Paweł Fotowicz. Zastosowanie algebry decybelowej w ocenach stanu zagrożeń akustycznych środowiska - nowe zadania projektu badawczego. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 86-87, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

5. Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Jacek Wierzbicki, Józef Wiora, Rafał Burdzik, Jan Warczek, Artur Nowoświat, Wojciech Batko, Radosław Kruk, Leszek Radziszewski, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki. Przegląd możliwości kierunkowego pomiaru zagrożenia akustycznego. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 88-89, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

6. Artur Nowoświat, Wojciech Batko, Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Rafał Burdzik, Jan Warczek, Leszek Radziszewski, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki, Józef Wiora. Algebra liczb perturbacyjnych. Zastosowanie w akustyce i szacowaniu niepewności. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 90, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

7. Bartłomiej Stępień, Wojciech Batko, Tomasz Korbiel, Rafał Burdzik, Jan Warczek, Józef Wiora, Artur Nowoświat, Leszek Radziszewski, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki, Radosław Kruk. Wykorzystanie metod statystycznych do wyznaczania poziomu mocy akustycznej maszyn i urządzeń. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 91, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

8. Jan Warczek, Rafał Burdzik, Wojciech Batko, Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Józef Wiora, Artur Nowoświat, Leszek Radziszewski, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki. Koncepcja zastosowania mocy pola akustycznego jako miary zagrożenia hałasem. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 92, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

9. Józef Wiora, Wojciech Batko, Tomasz Korbiel, Bartłomiej Stępień, Rafał Burdzik, Jan Warczek, Artur Nowoświat, Radosław Kruk, Leszek Radziszewski, Andrzej Bąkowski, Zbigniew Skrobacki. Paradoks określania niepewności pomiaru wielkości logarytmicznej na przykładzie poziomu hałasu. ISBN 978-83-964252-0-1, Peruń Grzegorz, Konieczny Łukasz (red.): Diagnostyka Maszyn. XLVIII Ogólnopolskie Sympozjum, Wisła, 27.02-2.03. 2022. Streszczenia, str. 93, Politechnika Śląska, 2022 r.

10. Józef Wiora. Least Lp-norm low-pass filter. Automatica, 133, (11) str. 109854, 2021 r.

,,We know that least Lp-norm filters, processing a one-dimensional signal within a time window, are suitable for attenuation of impulses. This article proposes a new analogue filter with exponentially weighted old samples, which is a generalization of the first-order low-pass filter. The obtained formula describing the output signal is presented in an implicit form. A simple but always convergent algorithm facilitates the approximation of the signal. Conducted simulations show properties of a set of the analogue filters with different values of p in the range of 1 to 2, covering step, ramp, and sinusoidal responses, as well as the ability to attenuate random noises, including stable distributions. The results prove that the elaborated filters achieve steady states faster than the typical low-pass filter and are particularly useful in the suppression of impulses. This property makes it possible that such a filter is perfectly adequate as an input filter of measurement transducers. "

11. Filip Rak, Józef Wiora. Comparison of ESP programming platforms. Computer Science and Information Technologies, 2, (2) str. 77-86, 2021 r.

,,The growing popularity of ESP boards has led to the development of several programming platforms. They allow users to develop applications for ESP modules in different programming languages, such as C++, C, Lua, MicroPython, or using AT Commands. Each of them is very specific and has different advantages. The programming style, efficiency, speed of execution, level of advancement, or memory usage will differ from one language to another. Users mostly base their choice depending on their programming skills and goals of the planned projects. The aim of this work is to determine, which language is the best suitable for a particular user for a particular type of project. We have described and compared the mentioned languages. We have prepared test tasks to indicate quantified values. There is no common rule because each of the languages is intended for a different kind of user. While one of the languages is slower but simpler in usage for a beginner, the other one requires broad knowledge but offers availability to develop very complex applications. "

12. Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek, Ewa Brągoszewska, Piotr Ciuman, Józef Wiora [i in.]. Kształtowanie środowiska wewnętrznego i inteligentne budynki. ISBN 978-83-7880-790-2, Sebastian Werle, Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek, Marcin Szczygieł: Ochrona klimatu i środowiska, nowoczesna energetyka, str. 305–335, 909, Politechnika Śląska, 2021 r.

13. Józef Wiora. Optymalizacja profilu hamowania w Europejskim Systemie Sterowania Pociągiem (ETCS). ISBN 978-83-7880-811-4, Sierpiński Grzegorz (red.): Wyzwania stojące przed miastami przyszłości. Inteligentne miasta i mobilność przyszłości, Inicjatywa Doskonałości - Uczelnia Badawcza, str. 307, Politechnika Śląska, 2021 r.

14. Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. Influence of Methods Approximating Fractional-Order Differentiation on the Output Signal Illustrated by Three Variants of Oustaloup Filter. Symmetry, 12, (11) str. 1898, 2020 r.

,,Fractional-order (FO) differential equations are more and more frequently applied to describe real-world applications or models of phenomena. Despite such models exhibiting high flexibility and good fits to experimental data, they introduce their inherent inaccuracy related to the order of approximation. This article shows that the chosen model influences the dynamic properties of signals. First, we calculated symbolically the steady-state values of an FO inertia using three variants of the Oustaloup filter approximation. Then, we showed how the models influence the Nyquist plots in the frequency domain. The unit step responses calculated using different models also have different plots. An example of FO control system evidenced different trajectories dependent on applied models. We concluded that publicized parameters of FO models should also consist of the name of the model used in calculations in order to correctly reproduce described phenomena. For this reason, the inappropriate use of FO models may lead to drawing incorrect conclusions about the described system."

15. Józef Wiora and Alicja Wiora. Inaccuracies Revealed During the Analysis of Propagation of Measurement Uncertainty Through a Closed-Loop Fractional-Order Control System. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, RRNR 2018: Advances in Non-Integer Order Calculus and Its Applications, str. 213–226, 559, Springer International Publishing, 2020 r.

The purpose of an automatic control is to provide the best quality of the output signal of a controlled object. This quality is dependent on the type and tuning parameters of the used controller and on the properties of a transducer measuring the output signal. In this work, it was considered how the imperfections of the transducer propagate by the fractional-order (FO) control system. It was revealed that the assumed approximation method of FO derivation changes the trajectory of the output signal and also has an influence on the steady-state value. In turn, the measurement uncertainty estimation should take into account the analysis of the occurrence of oscillations, arising from drifts of imperfect components, that may exceed the permissible errors of the measuring transducer.

16. Józef Wiora. Poziomomierze. ISBN 978-83-7880-688-2, Alicja Wiora: Przemysłowe pomiary wielkości fizycznych i chemicznych, str. 86–93, 843, Politechnika Śląska, 2020 r.

17. Józef Wiora. Konduktometria i amperometria. ISBN 978-83-7880-688-2, Alicja Wiora: Przemysłowe pomiary wielkości fizycznych i chemicznych, str. 106–113, 843, Politechnika Śląska, 2020 r.

18. Józef Wiora. Poziomomierze. ISBN 978-83-7880-688-2, Alicja Wiora: Przemysłowe pomiary wielkości fizycznych i chemicznych, str. 221–223, 843, Politechnika Śląska, 2020 r.

19. Józef Wiora. Konduktometria i amperometria. ISBN 978-83-7880-688-2, Alicja Wiora: Przemysłowe pomiary wielkości fizycznych i chemicznych, str. 227–230, 843, Politechnika Śląska, 2020 r.

20. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora. Over one-year long-term laboratory tests of pH electrodes in terms of industrial applications checking stabilities of their parameters and their impact on uncertainties of measurements. Sensors, 18, (12) str. 4102, 2018 r.

,,Glass pH electrodes are still successfully applied in the chemical and environmental industry. During their long-term use, periodic calibration is required to maintain the required accuracy of measurements because the parameters of the electrodes change over time. This work presents an aging of 11 pH electrodes within approximately 600 days in tap water. During this period, potentials of all electrodes in five buffer solutions were measured 44 times. This allowed determining the aging models of the electrodes. Models in other mediums might be different. Changes in slope, standard potential, hysteresis, and linearity of the characteristics were the objects of observations. A method for predicting electrode parameters is proposed. Furthermore, the procedure for estimating the uncertainty of pH measurements considering the aging of the electrodes is described. As a result of this work, a model of the aging process of pH electrodes in tap water can be constructed and subsequently, the measurement accuracy in the periods between calibrations can be improved."

21. Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. Measurement uncertainty evaluation of results provided by transducers working in control loops. IEEE Xplore. 23rd International Conference on Methods & Models in Automation & Robotics (MMAR), str. 763–767, 2018 r.

,,Evaluation of measurement uncertainties covers uncertainty propagation from sources to a measured quantity. Phenomena taking place inside measuring transducers are typically considered applying Type B evaluation. It is evidenced in this work, that transducers included in a closed-loop control system should be treated in a different way because their uncertainty sources propagate through the dynamic system and change their limits of variabilities. Depending on frequencies, the limits may be either similar or lower or even higher. An especially dangerous case takes place when the variability at the output of the plant is greater than at the output of the transducer. In this work, such cases are presented and discussed."

22. Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. Measurement uncertainty calculations for pH value obtained by an ion-selective electrode. Sensors, 18, (6) str. 1915, 2018 r.

,,An assessment of measurement uncertainty is a task, which has to be the final step of every chemical assay. Apart from a commonly applied typical assessment method, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations may be used. The simulations are frequently performed by a computer program, which has to be written, and therefore some programming skills are required. It is also possible to use a commonly known spreadsheet and perform such simulations without writing any code. Commercial programs dedicated for the purpose are also available. In order to show the advantages and disadvantages of the ways of uncertainty evaluation, i.e., the typical method, the MC method implemented in a program and in a spreadsheet, and commercial programs, a case of pH measurement after two-point calibration is considered in this article. The ways differ in the required mathematical transformations, degrees of software usage, the time spent for the uncertainty calculations, and cost of software. Since analysts may have different mathematical and coding skills and practice, it is impossible to point out the best way of uncertainty assessment—all of them are just as good and give comparable assessments."

23. Karol Jabłoński, Roman Czyba, Tomasz Grychowski, Józef Wiora, Marcin Janik, Natalia Łomnicka, Maciej Galeja. Multirotor platform with sensory head for measurement of selected air parameters. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, 24, (1) str. 179–188, 2017 r.

,,In this article, a project of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a measurement head designed for monitoring of air pollution is presented. The head contains modern sensors selective to the most important components of air in view of environmental pollution. Measurement data are acquired locally as well as transmitted wirelessly to a ground station. The UAV may be programmed to a particular measurement missions. The ground station dispose of a software for flight control and for visualisation of measurement results on-line."

24. Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora. Towards automation of measurement processes of surface water parameters by a remote-controlled catamaran. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences – Technical Sciences, 65, (3) str. 351–360, 2017 r.

,,This paper describes a way of determining selected water parameters using a prototype of a remote-controlled catamaran. The remote controlling allows to steer the boat and to manage the measurement process from the shore. It is possible to monitor the water parameters online as well as to store them and analyze them afterwards. The measured parameters are determined mainly using potentiometric methods and include several ion concentrations. The system is orientated towards monitoring breeding ponds or other similar surface waters. The mechanical construction of the catamaran, its electronic circuits and implemented software are described in detail in the paper. Conclusions obtained from preliminary tests are also included. The described construction allows analysts to perform simple and inexpensive remote measurements or assessments of water quality and reduces the time of such analysis in comparison to traditional sampling."

25. Józef Wiora, Stanisław Wrona, Marek Pawelczyk. Evaluation of measurement value and uncertainty of sound pressure level difference obtained by active device noise reduction. Measurement, 96, str. 67–75, 2017 r.

,,Acoustic insulation of a device from the environment can be enhanced by appropriate control of its casing vibrations. The level of noise reduction obtained in such way is considered as the main point for evaluating the performance of the active control system, hence its appropriate measurement constitutes a vital issue. In this study, measurement uncertainty evaluation of the sound pressure level difference is presented. Three independent components of the Type A evaluated uncertainties are derived. Many sets of conducted experiments allow to estimate the components, while information read from the calibration certificate of the employed sound level meter allow to estimate the Type B components. Prepared uncertainty budgets show that the most contributing source is the location dependency. Recommendations for appropriate performance measurement of an active control system are stated basing on the obtained results. "

26. Marcin Michalski, Józef Wiora. Możliwość zastosowania technologii Internetu rzeczy w przetwornikach pehametrycznych. Automatyka, Elektryka, Zakłócenia, 7, (4) str. 184–201, 2016 r.

,,Termin „internet rzeczy”, pomimo braku powszechnie akceptowanej definicji, jest obecnie często wykorzystywany, główne w celach marketingowych, przez producentów różnego rodzaju urządzeń. W artykule przedstawiono, jak należy rozumieć ten termin na podstawie rekomendacji Międzynarodowego Związku Telekomunikacyjnego ITU, oraz podano cechy omawianej technologii. Opisano również sposób zastosowania internetu rzeczy w przetworniku pehametrycznym, a także zaprezentowano wyniki testów laboratoryjnych."

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27. Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora. A weighted method for reducing measurement uncertainty below that which results from maximum permissible error. Measurement Science and Technology, 27, (3) str. 035007, 2016 r.

,,According to recent findings, it is possible to computationally determine a measurement result (value and uncertainty), using a special measurement method, in which this uncertainty is less than that assessed directly from experiments using Type B evaluation. The method works well only if the quantity is additive and its uncertainty is constant, i.e. independent of the measurement value. In the paper, a generalisation is made that also allows for the application of similar reasoning to quantities with variable uncertainties. The generalisation is obtained thanks to the replacement of the least squares optimisation, used in the derivation of the first method, with the weighted least squares. Examples with models of quantities that have variable uncertainties are described to show circumstances where improvements are significant. It can be said that the method described always improves uncertainties of additive quantities, but the improvement is not always significant. Suggestions to obtain the best improvement are given according to the analysis performed. A real laboratory experiment of a resistance measurement, with its uncertainty dominated by current measurement, was conducted to show how the method works."

28. Józef Wiora. Problems and risks occurred during uncertainty evaluation of a quantity calculated from correlated parameters: a case study of pH measurement. Accreditation and Quality Assurance, 21, (1) str. 33–39, 2016 r.

,,Parameters of a model describing a measurement process obtained during a calibration experiment allow one to calculate a measurement result, but a simple estimation of measurement uncertainties of the parameters is not sufficient to assess the uncertainty of the result. In this paper, an example of a pH measurement conducted using an ion-selective electrode is presented, in which the uncertainty is evaluated taking into consideration the existing correlation between the parameters of the electrode. The calculations apply either covariances or correlation coefficients that have to be computed additionally. The example presented in this paper illustrates that there are some problems with rounding of variables which, because of the existing very strong correlations, significantly changes the sought uncertainty. This approach is compared with other approaches, that is, usage of uncorrelated variables and Monte Carlo simulations that are described in an earlier work. It is concluded that the approach of uncertainty evaluation, in which covariances or correlation coefficients are explicitly calculated, is work-consuming and may cause significant discrepancies between correct and obtained assessments if some roundings or approximations are done, or if the correlation coefficient is obtained experimentally based on data including random errors. "

29. Andrzej Kozyra, Sebastian Patałąg, Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora. Szacowanie stężenia promieniotwórczego radonu i jego pochodnych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (39–40) str. Dodatek 21–22, 2016 r.

30. Józef Wiora, Dariusz Grabowski, Alicja Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra. Application of artificial neural networks for modelling of Nicolsky-Eisenman equation and determination of ion activities in mixtures. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Intelligent Systems’2014, str. 727-738, 322, 2015 r.

The paper deals with the problem of ion activity determination for a mixture by means of ion-selective electrodes. Mathematical model of the analysed phenomenon is described by the Nicolsky-Eisenman equation, which relates activities of ions and ion-selective electrode potentials. The equation is strongly nonlinear and, especially in the case of multi-compound assays, the calculation of ion activities becomes a complex task. Application of multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, which are known as universal approximators, can help to solve this problem. A new proposition of such network has been presented in the paper. The main difference in comparison with the previously proposed networks consists in the input set, which includes not only electrode potentials but also electrode parameters. The good network performance obtained during training has been confirmed by additional tests using measurement results and finally compared with the original as well as the simplified analytical model.

31. Józef Wiora. Uncertainty evaluation of pH measured using potentiometric method. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Intelligent Systems’2014, str. 523-531, 323, 2015 r.

Determination of pH using a typical glass electrode requires prior calibration in order to determine the electrode parameters. Knowledge about uncertainties of the parameters is insufficient to calculate the uncertainty of measured pH because of existing correlation. In the paper, an example illustrating the problem is presented. Two ways of proper uncertainty assessment are suggested: (1) analytical with removing the correlated variables and (2) numerical using Monte Carlo simulations. The second one seems to be much less time-consuming and allows easier investigations of the uncertainty properties.

32. Józef Wiora. Improvement of measurement results based on scattered data in cases where averaging is ineffective. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 201, str. 475-481, 2014 r.

,,A common technique applied during an assay is averaging several repeated measurements in order to obtain a more accurate result. This approach is suitable for most applications. However, in the case of impulsive disturbances which affect the measured object, averaging is not optimal. In the paper, the properties of impulsive disturbances are described and it is explained why averaging is suitable for Gaussian disturbances and unsuitable for impulse ones. The iteratively reweighted least squares method, popular among researchers dealing with signal processing, has been simplified, allowing analysts to use it easily, and it has been adopted to calculate a weighted mean which is more reliable. The properties of the weighted mean have been determined based on Monte Carlo simulations and an analytical signal obtained from an ion-selective electrode. The results shown that the most reliable results are obtained when the average is replaced by such weighted mean, which reduces to the median filtration---then, the obtained results are in some cases a bit worse but far less sensitive to impulses."

33. Andrzej Kozyra, Adrian Hamczyk, Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora,. Pływająca platforma do pomiarów środowiskowych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (36/38) 2014 r.

34. Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora,. Szacowanie niepewności wieloskładnikowego pomiaru potencjometrycznego wykonywanego jonometrem ADDA2.. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (36/38) 2014 r.

35. Józef Wiora. Zastosowanie algorytmu IRLS do wyznaczania średniej ważonej przebiegu zakłóconego szumem impulsowym. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (36/38) 2014 r.

36. Józef Wiora. Czym jest metoda Combined measurements?. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (36/38) 2014 r.

37. Józef Wiora. Automatyzacja procesu kalibracji elektrod jonoselektywnych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (36/38) 2014 r.

38. Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora. Comments on "Combined measurements - A way to improve the measurement accuracy of an additive quantity" by R. Siuda and A. Grabowski. Measurement, 46, (7) str. 2259–2261, 2013 r.

,,The commented article has introduced to metrology a new way of lowering the uncertainty assessed using Type B evaluation. The proposed method operates properly under some assumptions but unfortunately, the idea has been presented with some understatements and mistakes. The weak points are shown and discussed in this article."

39. Wojciech Błotnicki, Józef Wiora, Stanisław Waluś. Przepływomierz znacznikowy z czujnikiem konduktometrzycznym (po angielsku). Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 03a, str. 293-297, 2013 r.

,,W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono stanowisko laboratoryjne przeznaczone do badań nad metodami pomiaru strumienia objętości w kanałach otwartych. Zaprezentowano znacznikową metodę pomiaru z wykorzystaniem chlorku sodu oraz czujników konduktometrycznych jako jego detektorów. Przedstawiono również układ do pomiaru sygnałów z czujników konduktometrycznych, a także sposób wyznaczania czasu przejścia znacznika pomiędzy punktami pomiarowymi. Przeprowadzone eksperymenty pozwoliły uzyskać wyniki pomiaru strumienia objętości z niepewnością na poziomie 6%."

40. Andrzej Kozyra, Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. Calibration of potentiometric sensor arrays with a reduced number of standards. Talanta, 98, str. 28-33, 2012 r.

,,In this paper a novel calibration procedure for the parameter determination of ion-selective electrodes used in an array is described. Commonly used procedures require a large number of standards to determine the parameters based on the Nicolsky–Eisenman model. The elaborated procedure reduces the number of standards to a minimum by using a standard containing a mixture of ions instead of a couple of pure standards. This paper presents a complete calibration procedure, which consists of designing the composition of the standards, parameter determination and verification of the calibration results. Comparison of the results obtained by the procedure presented with results obtained by the Two-Point Calibration and Separate Solution methods proves that the accuracies of both procedures are comparable. The outlined procedure can be applied in multicomponent analysers."

41. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra. Dydaktyka pomiarów przewodności roztworów. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (34-35) str. 249--250, 2011 r.

42. Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora. Inny sposób kalibracji elektrod jonoselektywnych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (34-35) str. 232--235, 2011 r.

43. Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora. Jonometr umożliwiający wykonywanie pomiarów wieloskładnikowych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (34-35) str. 206--208, 2011 r.

44. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra, Tomasz Grychowski. Koncepcja domowego urządzenia do monitorowania stanu zdrowia pacjenta. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (33) str. 133--136, 2009 r.

45. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora, Przemysław Pacak. Zmniejszanie błędu dynamicznego elektrod jonoselektywnych poprzez programową predykcję wartości końcowej potencjału. Prace Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej. Elektryka, 1, (205) str. 133--143, 2008 r.

,,Czas odpowiedzi elektrody jonoselektywnej odgrywa rolę wtedy, gdy pomiary prowadzone są dla roztworów bardzo rozcieńczonych. Czas oczekiwania na ustalenie się końcowej wartości potencjału E2 może sięgać kilkudziesięciu minut. Opracowany algorytm pozwala na znacznie wcześniejsze oszacowanie poprawnej wartości E2. W zależności od zastosowanego modelu opisującego właściwości dynamiczne elektrod jonoselektywnych, wpływu zakłóceń i poprawności doboru wartości parametrów dynamicznych, błąd dynamiczny zmniejsza się od dwóch do sześciu razy przy zastosowaniu opracowanego algorytmu. Badania algorytmu na danych pomiarowych wykazały, że dla analizowanych przebiegów najlepszym modelem użytym do predykcji E2 jest model Rechnitza-Hameki."

46. Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. Porównanie wyników analitycznego i symulacyjnego szacowania niepewności na przykładzie pomiaru stężenia jonów metodą potencjometryczną. Prace Naukowe Politechniki Śląskiej. Elektryka, 1, (205) str. 145--155, 2008 r.

,,W artykule przedstawiono proces szacowania niepewności pomiaru stężenia z wykorzystaniem diagramu przyczynowo-skutkowego. Porównano metodę szacowania niepewności parametrów kalibracyjnych elektrod jonoselektywnych zalecaną przez GUM z metodą symulacyjną Monte Carlo. Na podstawie kilku przykładów uzyskano dużą zbieżność oszacowań. Zauważono większą rozbieżność dla większej wartości niepewności wielkości wejściowych, co wyjaśniono zmianą kształtu rozkładu po przejściu przez funkcję nieliniową. Porównano obie metody pod względem możliwości wyznaczenia wyniku, oszacowania niepewności, konieczności wyprowadzania wzoru parametru i współczynników wrażliwości, możliwości analizy udziałów, sporządzania histogramów oraz uwzględnienia nieliniowości w procesie szacowania niepewności. Stosując metodę symulacyjną, wyznaczono niepewność pomiaru stężenia dla przykładowych danych."

47. Alicja Wiora, Adam Klaczyński, Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra. Realizacja skokowej zmiany aktywności jonów na membranie jonoselektywnej z wykorzystaniem elektrozaworów. Elektronika, (6) str. 142--144, 2008 r.

,,Z uwagi na trudności uzyskania skokowej zmiany aktywności jonów na membranie elektrody, zmierzone wartości parametrów dynamicznych elektrod jonoselektywnych zależą między innymi od zastosowanej metody badawczej. W artykule przedstawiono nowe stanowisko pomiarowe przeznaczone do zadawania skokowej zmiany aktywności, w którym zastosowano sterowane elektrozaworami dwie dysze, przez które przepływają roztwory o różnej aktywności jonów. Doświadczalnie stwierdzono, że zmiana aktywności jonów jest wystarczająco szybka. Ponadto podczas zmiany aktywności jonów obwód elektryczny nie jest rozwierany, co jest wadą niektórych metod."

48. Andrzej Kozyra, Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora. Szacowanie niepewności w pomiarach potencjometrycznych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (32) str. 109--112, 2008 r.

49. Józef Wiora. O niepewnościach stężenia wzorców stosowanych podczas kalibracji potencjometrycznych elektrod jonoselektywnych. PAK, (5) str. 318--321, 2008 r.

,,W artykule przedstawiono relacje pomiędzy potencjałem elektrody jonoselektywnej a stężeniem jonów w roztworze. Przedstawiono przykład wykonania wzorca aktywności. Przeanalizowano niepewność stężenia jonów we wzorcach przygotowywanych poprzez rozpuszczanie soli, we wzorcach powstałych poprzez rozcieńczenia oraz we wzorcach otrzymanych automatycznie metodą wielokrotnego rozcieńczania wzorca."

50. Józef Wiora. Charakterystyka błędów pomiarowych spowodowanych uproszczeniem modeli zjawisk fizykochemicznych w wieloskładnikowych pomiarach potencjometrycznych. Prace Komisji Naukowych PAN — Oddział w Katowicach, (31/2006) str. 100--102, 2007 r.

51. Józef Wiora, Alicja Wiora. A system allowing for the automatic determination of the characteristic shapes of ion-selective electrodes. Proceedings of SPIE, Optoelectronic and Electronic Sensors VI, ed. Tadeusz Pisarkiewicz, 6348, Zakopane, 2006 r.

The plot of ion-selective electrode's potential vs. ion concentration in a solution is non-linear and very complex. In the paper, a set-up is described which allows to determine the plot using multiple dilution method in an automatic way. The set-up is not expensive and the presence of experimenter in the laboratory is not necessary during the test of the electrode. Additionally, the system allows for simultaneous investigation of several electrodes.

52. Alicja Wiora, Józef Wiora, Andrzej Kozyra. Dynamic models of ion-selective electrodes and their interface electronics. Metrology and Measurement Systems, XIII, (4) str. 421--432, 2006 r.

,,Dynamic models of an ion-selective electrode are analysed in this article taking into account the independence of values of its dynamic parameters from the value and direction of activity change. Unfortunately, a complicated mathematical representation of a new model makes the model difficult to be applied in practice. Therefore, some simplifications are made constructing two semi-empirical models: 1) a model with the k parameter and 2) a model basing on two other models well-known from the literature. Verifications of the new models have been performed using the measuring set-up built in the Division of Measurement Systems at the Silesian University of Technology. Obtained results proved that the model with the k parameter completely fulfils the goal of the article − its dynamic parameters are dependent on the slightest degree of the kind of activity step."


zaktualizowano: 23.05.2024